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What is Blues Music? A Comprehensive Guide

Updated: Apr 19

In the world of music, few genres possess the raw emotion and soul-wrenching melodies quite like the blues. Originating from the depths of African American culture, blues music has carved its path through history. Let’s explore this rich genre!

What is the Blues?

The blues, at its core, is more than just a genre of music; it's a profound expression of the human condition. Rooted in the African American experience, the blues emerged as a cathartic outlet for the joys, sorrows, and struggles of life. Characterised by its soulful melodies, poignant lyrics, and emotive instrumentation, blues music has the power to evoke a wide range of emotions within its listeners.

Origin and Name:

Some suggest that it stems from the melancholy melodies and mournful lyrics that echo the hardships endured by enslaved Africans in the American South. Others point to the use of "blue notes" – flattened third, fifth, and seventh degrees of the scale – which lend the music its distinctive sound and emotional depth. 

Additional Reading: 

Historical Evolution:

Tracing its roots back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, blues music evolved from a fusion of African musical traditions, spirituals, work songs, and field hollers. As African Americans migrated to urban centres during the Great Migration, the blues underwent further transformation, giving rise to different regional styles such as Delta blues, Chicago blues, and Texas blues.

Musical Characteristics:

The blues is defined by its unique musical characteristics. Central to its structure is the 12-bar blues progression, a simple yet powerful framework that underpins countless blues compositions. This repetitive pattern, often accompanied by call-and-response vocals and improvisational solos, creates a sense of rhythmic urgency and emotional intensity.

Additional Reading: 

Why the Blues?

Historical Perception:

During the early 20th century, as blues music gained popularity among African American communities, it also garnered attention from religious and conservative groups who viewed its themes of love, loss, and desire as antithetical to their values. This moral apprehension, coupled with the association of blues clubs with illicit activities such as gambling and drinking, led to the stigmatisation of blues music as morally corrupt and spiritually dangerous.

Cultural Context:

The designation of blues music as the "Devil's music" also reflects broader societal attitudes towards African American culture and identity. In a society deeply divided along racial lines, blues music served as a powerful vehicle for African Americans to assert their humanity and assert their agency in the face of systemic oppression. However, this assertion of cultural pride and resilience was often met with resistance and hostility from those who sought to maintain the status quo.

Additional Reading

Musical Expression:

Despite its controversial reputation, blues music has always been more than just a form of entertainment; it's a universal form of artistic expression. Through its raw emotion of human experience, blues music offers a glimpse into the triumphs and tribulations of the human spirit, inviting listeners to confront their struggles and find solace in shared experiences.

How Does Blues Music Sound?

Soulful Melodies:

At the heart of blues music are its soulful melodies. Whether delivered through the wailing cry of a slide guitar or the mournful lament of a harmonica, blues melodies have a way of resonating deep within the listener's soul, evoking emotions.

Expressive Vocals:

Central to the blues tradition is the art of storytelling through song, with vocalists serving as the conduits through which the narrative unfolds. From the gritty growl of Howlin' Wolf to the plaintive croon of Billie Holiday, blues vocalists have a gift for imbuing their performances with raw emotion and unbridled passion, laying bare their innermost thoughts and feelings for all to hear.

Rhythmic Grooves:

Blues music is driven by a rhythmic pulse that sets the stage for improvisation and musical exploration. The feel is often swung or shuffled (triple note pattern with one removed, getting a long-short feel).

Some musicians and historians suggest that the rhythmic pattern of the shuffle, with its distinctive "chugga-chugga" feel, mirrors the sound of a train in motion.

Furthermore, in the early 20th century, many African American musicians, particularly in the Southern United States, worked on or near railroad tracks. The rhythm of the trains and the work songs sung by railroad laborers likely influenced the development of musical styles like blues, which often incorporated elements of the shuffle rhythm.

Guitar Solos:

One of the hallmarks of blues music is its emphasis on improvisation and instrumental virtuosity. From the searing guitar solos of B.B. King to the lightning-fast runs of Stevie Ray Vaughan, blues musicians have a knack for pushing the boundaries of their instruments, creating electrifying performances for audiences.

Emotional Resonance:

But perhaps the most defining characteristic of blues music is its ability to connect with listeners on a deeply emotional level. Whether you're feeling the sting of heartbreak or the exhilaration of newfound love, there's a blues song for every mood and every moment, offering solace and companionship in times of joy and sorrow alike.

Instruments of the Blues

10 Legendary Blues Musicians

Throughout its storied history, blues music has been shaped and defined by the talent and innovation of countless musicians. From the smoky juke joints of the Mississippi Delta to the neon-lit clubs of Chicago's South Side, these pioneering artists have left an indelible mark on the world of music, inspiring generations of musicians and touching the hearts of audiences around the globe. Here are 10 legendary blues musicians who have made an enduring impact on the genre:

1. Robert Johnson

  • Widely regarded as one of the most influential blues guitarists of all time, Robert Johnson's haunting vocals and virtuosic guitar playing helped define the Delta blues sound. His songs, such as "Cross Road Blues" and "Hellhound on My Trail," continue to resonate with listeners to this day.

2. B.B. King

  • Known as the "King of the Blues," B.B. King's soulful voice and expressive guitar playing revolutionized the genre, earning him widespread acclaim and adoration. With classics like "The Thrill Is Gone" and "Every Day I Have the Blues," King left an indelible mark on the world of blues music.

3. Muddy Waters

  • A towering figure in the world of Chicago blues, Muddy Waters helped popularize electric blues and pave the way for the blues-rock explosion of the 1960s. His gritty vocals and electrifying stage presence made him a legend, with songs like "Hoochie Coochie Man" and "Rollin' Stone" becoming classics of the genre.

4. Etta James

  • With her powerhouse vocals and soulful delivery, Etta James was a force to be reckoned with in the world of blues and R&B. Her timeless hits, including "At Last" and "I'd Rather Go Blind," showcase her incredible range and emotional depth, earning her a permanent place in the pantheon of blues greats.

5. Howlin' Wolf

  • Known for his deep, gravelly voice and electrifying stage presence, Howlin' Wolf was one of the most formidable figures in the world of blues music. His raw, unfiltered style and powerful delivery made him a legend, with songs like "Smokestack Lightnin'" and "Spoonful" becoming staples of the genre.

6. Albert King

  • Renowned for his stinging guitar solos and soulful vocals, Albert King was a towering figure in the world of blues and blues-rock. His innovative playing style, often imitated but never duplicated, influenced countless musicians, with classics like "Born Under a Bad Sign" cementing his legacy as one of the all-time greats.

7. Koko Taylor

  • Dubbed the "Queen of the Blues," Koko Taylor's powerhouse vocals and electrifying stage presence made her a force to be reckoned with in the world of blues music. Her raw, unapologetic style and fearless approach to performance earned her widespread acclaim, with songs like "Wang Dang Doodle" becoming anthems of the genre.

8. John Lee Hooker

  • With his distinctive boogie-woogie guitar playing and gravelly voice, John Lee Hooker was a true original in the world of blues music. His hypnotic rhythms and raw, emotive vocals made him a legend, with songs like "Boom Boom" and "One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer" becoming timeless classics.

9. Sister Rosetta Tharpe

  • A trailblazer in every sense of the word, Sister Rosetta Tharpe was a pioneering figure in the world of gospel and blues music. With her electrifying guitar playing and soulful vocals, she broke down barriers and defied expectations, paving the way for generations of musicians to come.

10. Stevie Ray Vaughan

  • A modern-day guitar hero, Stevie Ray Vaughan's blistering guitar solos and soulful vocals made him a legend in the world of blues rock. His electrifying performances and virtuosic playing style earned him widespread acclaim, with albums like "Texas Flood" and "Couldn't Stand the Weather" solidifying his status as one of the all-time greats.

These 10 musicians were particularly worth noting for their status and involvement in the blues world. However, there are so many great blues bands out there! To help you find more music, we’ve compiled some of the best blues songs and best blues albums in useful blogs!

Best Blues Albums

Additional reading:


And if you like those albums, you may like ours too!


Blues Music Today

While the golden age of blues may be a thing of the past, the spirit of this timeless genre continues to thrive in the modern musical landscape. From smoky clubs to international festivals, blues music remains a vibrant and vital force, captivating audiences with its raw emotion and soul-stirring melodies, and this is especially true in the UK.

Additional reading: 

Blues in Britain

One of the key factors in the development of British blues was the availability of American blues records in the UK. Despite the segregation and racial barriers in the United States during the mid-20th century, blues records found their way across the Atlantic through various channels, including imports and the influence of American servicemen stationed in Britain during World War II.

British musicians, particularly those in the burgeoning rock and R&B scenes, were heavily influenced by American blues artists such as Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, and B.B. King. These musicians, including figures like Alexis Korner, Cyril Davies, and John Mayall, formed bands and started performing blues covers and original compositions that drew heavily from the blues tradition.

The British blues scene gained momentum in the early 1960s with the emergence of bands like The Rolling Stones, The Yardbirds, and The Animals, who incorporated blues influences into their music. These bands not only introduced British audiences to the blues but also helped popularize the genre worldwide through their recordings and performances.

By the mid-1960s, British blues had become a distinct subgenre, characterized by its raw energy, electrified sound, and innovative interpretations of traditional blues themes. Bands like Cream, Led Zeppelin, and Fleetwood Mac further pushed the boundaries of British blues, incorporating elements of psychedelia, hard rock, and folk music into their sound.

The British blues movement paved the way for the development of other genres, such as progressive rock and heavy metal, while also influencing subsequent generations of musicians both in the UK and around the world. Today, British blues continues to thrive, with a vibrant scene of musicians and bands carrying on the tradition while also exploring new directions in the genre. If you want to keep up to date with new blues artists a great place to start is to follow the UK Blues Federation and their annual UK Blues Awards. Otherwise, here are some great UK Blues Bands. (We’ve also got a blog on global modern blues bands.)

UK Blues Festivals

Experiencing the blues is also the best way to understand what it's about! Here are some popular ones in the UK.

  • Ealing Blues Festival: London's premier blues event, part of the Ealing Summer Festivals series, showcases a mix of local and international talent.

  • Colne Blues Festival (The Great British Rhythm and Blues Festival): Held in Colne, Lancashire, this festival draws top national and international blues acts.

  • Broadstairs Blues Bash: Enjoy a range of blues performances in Kent at this free festival spread across various venues in the Broadstairs area.

  • Upton Blues Festival: Experience a mix of established and emerging blues acts at this free festival in Upton upon Severn, Worcestershire.

  • Dereham Blues Festival: Celebrating both local and national blues artists, this festival offers live performances across multiple venues in Dereham.

  • Red Rooster: Immerse yourself in the sounds of rhythm and blues, Americana, soul, roots, and country at this festival set in the picturesque grounds of Euston Hall, with a vibe reminiscent of the American South.

Most rock, pop, Americana, Folk and Jazz festivals will likely also have some blues acts on display, however the ones listed above have a strong focus on Blues!

UK Blues Magazines:

Another great way to stay in the loop of new talent and artists is to follow dedicated UK blues magazines.

  • Blues Matters!: Established in 1999, this magazine is a revered source for blues enthusiasts, offering artist interviews, reviews, news, and features.

  • Blues in Britain: Providing insights into the UK blues scene, this magazine focuses on local artists and events, delivering news, reviews, and features.

  • Blues & Rhythm Magazine: Delve into a rich tapestry of blues, R&B, gospel, soul, and more with this UK-based publication, which offers a British perspective on both local and international scenes.


In conclusion, while the blues may have its roots in the past, its influence and impact can still be felt in the present day. From its humble beginnings in the Mississippi Delta to its current status as a global phenomenon, blues music continues to captivate audiences with its raw emotion, soulful melodies, and timeless appeal.

Whether you're a lifelong fan or a newcomer to the genre, the blues has something to offer everyone, reminding us that no matter where life takes us, the music will always be there to guide us home.


What is Blues Music?

Blues music is a genre characterised by its emotive lyrics, soulful melodies, and distinctive 12-bar harmonic structure, often exploring themes of hardship, sorrow, and resilience, deeply rooted in the African American experience.

What are the Sub Genres of Blues?

How to Distinguish Jazz from Blues?

What is the Significance of Blues Music?

What are the Types of Blues?

What are the Origins of Blues Music?

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